Пищевая анафилаксия у детей

Т.С. Лепешкова 1,2, Е.К. Бельтюков 1, С.А. Царькова 1

1 ФГБОУ ВО «Уральский государственный медицинский университет» Минздрава Российской Федерации, г. Екатеринбург, Россия;
2 МАУ «Городская детская поликлиника № 13», г. Екатеринбург, Россия

АЛЛЕРГОЛОГИЯ И ИММУНОЛОГИЯ В ПЕДИАТРИИ, № 1 (60), МАРТ 2020, стр. 26 — 43
DOI: 10.24411/2500-1175-2020-10002

Пищевая анафилаксия — тяжелая, жизнеугрожающая реакция, возникающая на продукты питания. В последние годы отмечается рост числа подобных реакций у детей разного возраста. Зачастую умение распознать симптомы пищевой анафилаксии окружающими больного ребенка людьми — залог спасенной жизни. В данной статье на основе современных данных по эпидемиологии, этиологии и патогенезу пищевой анафилаксии рассматриваются проблемы, которые имеются в настоящее время в диагностике и лечении детей с пищевой анафилаксией, предлагаются пути к их решению.

  1. Johansson S.G., et al. Revised nomenclature for allergy for global use: Report of the Nomenclature Review Committee of the World Allergy Organization, October 2003. //J. Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004. Vol. 113. № 5. Р. 832–836.
  2. Muraro A., Roberts G., Worm M. et al. Anaphylaxis: guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. //Allergy.2014. № 69. Р. 1026–1045.
  3. Simons F.E.R., Ardusso L.R.F., Bilo M.B. et al. World Allergy Organization Guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis // World Allergy Organ. J. 2011. № 2. Р. 13–37.
  4. Simons F.E.R., Ardusso L.R.F., Bilo M.B. et al. 2012 Update: World Allergy Organization Guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis //Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2012.№12. Р. 389–399.
  5. Simons F.E.R., Ardusso L.R.F., Dimov V. et al. World Allergy Organization Anaphylaxis Guidelines: 2013 update of the evidence base //Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2013. Vol. 162. № 3. Р. 193–204.
  6. Simons F.E.R., Ebisawa M., Sanchez-Borges M. et al. 2015 Update of the evidence base: World Allergy Organization anaphylaxis guidelines // World Allergy Organ. J. 2015. Vol. 8. № 1. Р. 32–38.
  7. Khodoun M.V., Strait R., Armstrong L. et al. Identification of markers that distinguish IgE-from IgG-mediated anaphylaxis // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2011. № 108. Р. 1241–1248.
  8. Muraro A. et al. The management of anaphylaxis in childhood: position paper of the European academy of allergology and clinical immunology //Allergy. 2007. Vol. 62. № 8. Р. 857–871.
  9. Аллергология и иммунология: нац. рук. / ред. Р.М. Хаитов, Н.И. Ильина. М.: ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2009. — 656 с.
  10. Sampson H.A., Munoz-Furlong A., Campbell R.L. et al. Second symposium on the definition and management of anaphylaxis: summary report—Second National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network symposium //J. Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006. № 117. Р. 391–397.
  11. Jerschow E., Lin R.Y., Scaperotti M.M. et al. Fatal anaphylaxis in the United States, 1999–2010: Temporal patterns and demographic associations //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2014. № 134. Р. 1318–1328.
  12. Muraro A., Roberts G., Worm M. et al. Anaphylaxis: guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology //Allergy. 2014. № 69. Р .1026–1045.
  13. Фомина Д.С., Горячкина Л.А. Анафилаксия — диагностика и лечение: учебное пособие/ФГБОУ ДПО «Российская медицинская академия непрерывного профессионального образования». — М.: ФГБОУ ДПО РМАНПО, 2017. — 95 с.
  14. Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Translating knowledge into clinical practice. EAACI. 2014. — 276 p.
  15. Simons F.E., Sampson H.A. Anaphylaxis epidemic: factor fiction? //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2008. 122. Р. 1166–1168.
  16. Løvik M., Namork E., Fæste C., Egaas E. The Norwegian National Reporting System and Register of Severe Allergic Reactions to Food //Norsk Epidemiologi 2004. 14. Р. 155–160.
  17. Sicherer S.H. and H.A. Sampson. Food allergy //J. Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010. Vol. 125 (2 Suppl 2). Р. 116–125.
  18. Rance F., Kanny G., Dutau G., Moneret-Vautrin D.A. Food hypersensitivity in children: Clinical aspects and distribution of allergen //Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 1999. 10. Р. 33–38.
  19. Bohlke K., Davis R.L., DeStefano F., Marcy S.M., Braun M.M., Thompson R.S. Epidemiology of anaphylaxis among children and adolescents enrolled in a health maintenance organization //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2004 Mar. Vol. 113 № 3. Р. 536–542.
  20. Macdougall C., Cant A., Colver A. How dangerous is food allergy in childhood? The incidence of severe and fatal allergic reactions across the UK and Ireland //Archiv Dis Childh. 2002. Р. 236–239.
  21. Young M.C. General treatment of anaphylaxis. In: D.Y.M. Leung, H.A. Sampson, R.S. Geha, S.J. Szefler (eds.). Pediatric allergy principles and practice. St Louis (MO): Mosby, Inc 2003. Р. 643–654.
  22. Simons F., Peterson S., Black C.D. Epinephrine dispensing patterns for an out of hospital population: a novel approach to studying the epidemiology of anaphylaxis // J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110: 647–651.
  23. Brown A.F., D. McKinnon, and K. Chu. Emergency department anaphylaxis: A review of 142 patients in a single year //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2001. Vol. 108. № 5. Р. 861–866.
  24. Järvinen K.M., Sicherer S.H., Sampson H.A., Nowak-Wegrzyn A. Use of multiple doses of epinephrine in food-induced anaphylaxis in children //J.Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2008. 122. Р. 133–138.
  25. Alberse R.K. Structural biology of allergens. J Allergy Clin Immune. (2000) 106: 228–238.
  26. Johansson S.G., et al. Revised nomenclature for allergy for global use: Report of the Nomenclature Review Committee of the World Allergy Organization, October 2003 //J. Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004. Vol. 113, № 5. Р. 832–836.
  27. Lehrer S.B., Ayuso R., Reese G. Current understanding of food allergens //Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 2002. Vol. 964. P. 69–85.
  28. Monti G., Marinaro L., Libanore V. et al. Anaphylaxis due to fish hypersensitivity in an exclusively breastfed infant //Acta Paediat. 2006. 2. Р. 15–22.
  29. Bertuzzi Z, Coco RR, Muraroa, Nowak-Wegrzyn A. Сontribution of molecular allergen analysis to the diagnosis of milk Allergy //Curr. Allergy Asthma Rep. 2017. 17. Р. 46.
  30. Hochwaliner H., Schulmeister U., Swoboda I., Spitrauer S., Valenta R. Cowˈs milk allergy. From allergens to new forms of diagnosis, therapy and prevantion //Methods. 2014 Mar. 1. Vol 66. № 1. Р. 22–33.
  31. Remington B.C., Westerhout J., Campbell D.E., Turner P.J. Minimal effect of intensive heating of chicken eggs and cow’s milk in the food matrix on the threshold dose distribution curves //Allergy. 2017. 72. Р. 1806–1809.
  32. Ehn B.M., Ekstrand B., Bengtsson U., Ahlstedt S. Modification of IgE binding during heat processing of the cow’s milk allergen beta-lactoglobulin //J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004. Vol. 52. № 5. Р. 1398–1403.
  33. Caubet J.C., Lin J., Ahrens B., Gimenez G., Bardina L., Niggemann B. etc. Natural development of tolerance in children with allergies to cow’s milk: binding of IgE and IgG4 epitopes //Allergy. 2017. 72. Р. 1677–1685.
  34. Calvani M., Arasi S., Bianchi А., Caymmi D’uomo B., Donde A. etc. Is it possible to make a diagnosis of Allergy to raw, heated and baked eggs in children using slicers? Systematic review //Pediatr. Allergy Immunal. 2015. 26. Р. 509–521.
  35. Petrosino M.I. et al. Usefulness of molecular diagnosis in egg allergic children. //Arch Med Sci 2018. Vol. 14. № 1. Р. 132–137.
  36. Lin H.Y., Shyur S.D., Fu J.L., Lai Y.C., Lin J.S. Fish induced anaphylactic reaction: report of one case //Allergy. 1998. Vol. 39. № 3. Р. 200–202.
  37. Armentia A. Anaphylaxis caused by hidden soybean allergens in pillows //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2013. 13. Р. 228–230.
  38. Matsuo H., Morita E., Tatham A.S., Morimoto K., Horikawa T., Osuna H., Ikezawa Z., Kaneko S., Kohno K., Dekio S. Identification of the IgE-binding epitope in omega-5 gliadin, a major allergen in wheat-dependent exerciseinduced anaphylaxis //J. Biol. Chem. 2004. Vol. 279. № 13. Р. 12135–12140.
  39. Shadick N.A., Liang M.H., Partridge A.J. et al. The natural history of exercise-induced anaphylaxis: survey results from a 10-year follow-up study //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1999. 104. Р. 123–127.
  40. Dalal I., Binson I., Levine A. et al. The pattern of sesame sensitivity among infants and children //Pediat Allergy Immunol. 2003. 14. Р. 312–316.
  41. Roberts J.R., Gerstner T.V., Grewar D.A. et al. Allergy to caribou and seal meats in Inuit children: a report of three cases //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2006. 117. Р. 42–46.
  42. Ballardini N., Nopp A. Anaphylactic Reaction to Novel Foods: case Report of a Child with Severe Crocodile Meat Allergy //Pediatrics. 2017. Vol. 139. № 4. Р. 5–7.
  43. Moriyama T. Diversity of food allergy //J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo). 2015. 61. Р. 106–108.
  44. Price A., Ramachandran S., Smith G.P., Stevenson M.L., Pomeranz M.K., Cohen D.E. Oral allergy syndrome (Pollen-food allergy syndrome) //Dermatitis. 2015. 26. Р. 78–88.
  45. Díaz-Perales A., Sanz M.L., García-Casado G., Sánchez-Monge R., García-Selles F.J., Lombardero M., Polo F., Gamboa P.M., Barber D., Salcedo G. Recombinant Pru p 3 and natural Pru p 3, a major peach allergen, show equivalent immunologic reactivity: a new tool for the diagnosis of fruit allergy //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2003. Vol. 111. № 3. Р. 628–633.
  46. Martinez A., Asturias J.A., Monteseirin J., Moreno V., Garcia-Cubillana A., Hernandez M., de la Calle A., Sanchez-Hernandez C., Perez-Formoso J.L., Conde J. The allergenic relevance of profilin (Ole e 2) from Olea europaea pollen //Allergy. 2002. 57 Suppl 71. Р. 17–23.
  47. Menz G., Dolecek C., Schonheit-Kenn U., Ferreira F., Moser M., Schneider T., Suter M., Boltz-Nitulescu G., Ebner C., Kraft D., Valenta R. Serological and skin-test diagnosis of birch pollen allergy with recombinant Bet v I, the major birch pollen allergen. // Clin Exp Allergy 1996; 26(1): 50–60.
  48. Hoffmann-Sommergruber K. Pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins identified as allergens //Biochemical Society Transactions. 2002. 30 (Pt 6). Р. 930–935.
  49. Werfel T., Asero R., Ballmer-Weber B.K., Beyer K., Enrique E., Knulst A.C. et al. Position paper of the EAACI: food allergy due to immunological cross-reactions with common inhalant allergens //Allergy. 2015. 70. Р. 1079–1090.
  50. Guillet M.H., Guillet G. Food urticaria in children. Review of 51 cases. [French] //Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1993. Vol. 25, № 8. Р. 333–338.
  51. Maeda N., Inomata N., Morita A., Kirino M., Moriyama T., Ikezawa Z. Anaphylaxis due to peach with negative ImmunoCAP result to peach allergens, including rPru p 1, rPru p 3, AND rPru p 4: A report of two cases. [Japanese] // Arerugi. 2009. Vol. 58. № 2. 140–147.
  52. Eriksson N.E. Food sensitivity reported by patients with asthma and hay fever. A relationship between food sensitivity and birch pollen-allergy and between food sensitivity and acetylsalicylic acid intolerance //Allergy. 1978. Vol. 33. № 4. Р. 189–196.
  53. Asero R., Mistrello G., Amato S., Roncarolo D., Martinelli A., Zaccarini M. Peach fuzz contains large amounts of lipid transfer protein: is this the cause of the high prevalence of sensitization to LTP in Mediterranean countries? //Allerg. Immunol. (Paris) 2006. Vol. 38(4): 118–121.
  54. Asero R., Amato S., Alfieri B., Folloni S., Mistrello G. Rice: Another potential cause of food allergy in patients sensitized to lipid transfer protein //Int Arc Allergy Immunol. 2006. Vol. 143. № 1. Р. 69–74.
  55. Asero R., Mistrello G., Roncarolo D., de Vries S.C., Gautier M.F., Ciurana C.L., Verbeek E., Mohammadi T., Knul-Brettlova V., Akkerdaas J.H., Bulder I., Aalberse R.C., van Ree R. Lipid transfer protein: a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion // Int. Arch. Allergy. Immunol. 2000. Vol. 122. № 1. P. 20–32.
  56. Brehler R., Theissen U., Mohr C., Luger T. «Latex-fruit syndrome»: frequency of cross-reacting IgE antibodies //Allergy. 1997. Vol. 52, №4. Р. 404–410.
  57. Barral P., Batanero E., Palomares O., Quiralte J., Villalba M., Rodríguez R. A major allergen from pollen defines a novel family of plant proteins and shows intra- and interspecies [correction of interspecie] cross-reactivity //J. Immunol. 2004. Vol. 172, № 6. Р. 3644–3651.
  58. Chiang W.C. et al. Anaphylaxis to cowˈs milk formula containing short- chain galacto-oligosaccharide //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2012. 130. Р. 1361–1367.
  59. Есакова Н.В. Клинико-иммунологические маркеры пищевой анафилаксии у детей. Автореф. на соиск. учен. степени к.м.н. М., 2014. — 26 с.
  60. Larsen L.F., Juel-Berg N., Hansen K.S., Claire Mills E.N., van Ree R., Poulsen L.K., etc. a Comparative study on testing the activation of basophil, assay of histamine release, and passive assay of histamine release sensitization in the diagnosis of peanut Allergy //Allergy. 2018. 73. Р. 137–144.
  61. Tordesillas L., Berlin M.C., Sampson H.A. Immunology of food Allergy //Immunity. 2017. 47. Р. 32–50.
  62. Renz H., Allen K.J., Sicherer S.H., Sampson H.A., Black G., Beyer K., etc. Food Allergy //Nat. Rev. Dis. Primers. 2018. 4. Р. 17098–17102.
  63. Arias K., Baig M., Colangelo M. et al. Concurrent blockade of platelet- activating factor and histamine prevents life-threatening peanut- induced anaphylactic reactions //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2009. 124. 307–314.
  64. Vadas P., Gold M., Perelman B. et al..Platelet- activating factor, PAF acetylhydrolase, and severe anaphylaxis //N. Engl. J. Med. 2008. 4. P. 35828–35835.
  65. Vadas P., Perelman B. and Liss G. Platelet- activating factor, histamine and tryptase levels in human anaphylaxis //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2013. 131. Р. 144–149.
  66. Carter K.A., Freesmeyer Guerrero P.A. Genetics of food Allergy //Curr. Allergy Asthma Rep. 2018. 18. P. 2–12.
  67. Krogulska A., Borowiec M., Polakowska E., Dynowski J., Młynarski W., Wasowska-Królikowska K. FOXP3, IL-10 and TGF-beta gene expression in children with IgE-dependent food Allergy //J. Clin. Immunol. 2011. 31. P. 205–215.
  68. Francis A., Bosio E., Stone S.F. et al. Neutrophil activation during acute human anaphilaxis: analysis of MPO and sCD62L //Clin. Exp. Allergy. 2017. 47. P. 361–370.
  69. Tordesillas L., Mondoulet L., Blazquez A.B. et al. Mass cytometry profiling the response of basophils and the complete peripheral blood compartment to peanut //J. Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. 139. P. 189–201.
  70. Dang T.D., Allen K.J., Martino D. Kaplin J.J., Licciardi P.V., Tang M.L. In children with food allergies, the regulatory reactions of T cells after exposure to the allergen in vivo are impaired //Pediatr Allergy Immunal. 2016. 27. Р. 35–44.
  71. Carrier Y., Yuan J., Kuchroo V.K., Weiner H.L. Th3 cells in peripheral tolerance. Induction of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells by Th3 cells derived from TGF-beta t cells in transgenic mice //J. Immunal. 2007. 178. Р. 179–185.
  72. Suzuki H., Sekine S., Kataoka K., Pascual D.W., Maddaloni M., Kobayashi R., etc. Ovalbumin-protein sigma 1 m-cell targeting facilitates oral tolerance with reduction of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells //Gastroenterology. 2008. 135. Р. 917–925.
  73. Curotto de Lafaille M.A., Kutchukhidze N., Shen S., Ding Y., Yee H., Lafaille J.J. Adaptive Foxp3 + regulatory T-cell-dependent and independent control of allergic inflammation //Immunity 2008. 29. Р. 114–126
  74. Palladino C., Net M.S., Bublik M., Schreiner M., Humeniuk P., Gschwandtner M., etc. Тhe Lipids of peanut shows potential adjuvanticity by triggering a proinflammatory response in human keratinocytes //Allergy. 2018. 73. Р. 1746–1749.
  75. Simons F.E.R., Chad Z.H., Gold M. Anaphylaxis in children: real-time reporting from a national network //Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2004. Suppl 1. Р. 242–244.
  76. Sampson H. Anaphylaxis and Emergency Treatment //Pediatrics. 2003. 111. Р. 1601–1608.
  77. Ellis A.K, Day J.H. Incidence and characteristics of biphasic anaphylaxis: a prospective evaluation of 103 patients //Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007. Vol. 98. № 1. 64–69.
  78. Ellis A. Biphasic Anaphylaxis: A Review of the Incidence, Characteristics and Predictors //Open Allergy J. 2010. 3. Р. 24–28.
  79. Lee J.M., Greenes D.S. Biphasic anaphylactic reactions in pediatrics //Pediatrics. 2000. 106. Р. 762–766.
  80. Sampson H.A., Mendelson L.M., Rosen J.P. Fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to food in children and adolescents //N. Engl. J. Med. 1992. Vol. 327. 6. Р. 380–384.
  81. Pumphrey R.S., Roberts I.S. Postmortem findings after fatal anaphylactic reactions //J. Clin. Pathol. 2000. 53. Р. 273–276.
  82. Simons F.E.R. First-aid treatment of anaphylaxis to food: focus on epinephrine //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol 2004. 113. Р. 837–844.
  83. Федеральные клинические рекомендации по диагностике и лечению анафилаксии, анафилактического шока. М., 2018.
  84. Aalberse R.K. Structural biology of allergens //J. Allergy Clin Immune. 2000. 106. Р. 228–238.
  85. Kim F. et al. Diagnostic accuracy, risk assessment, and cost- effectiveness of component-resolved diagnostics for food allergy: a systematic review //Allergy. 2018. Jan 10. 3. P. 6–13.
  86. Simons F.E.R., Sampson H.A. Anaphylaxis: Unique aspects of clinical diagnosis and management in infants (birth to age 2 years) //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2015. 135. Р. 1125–1131.
  87. Soar J. et al. Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions-guidelines for healthcare providers //Resuscitation, 2008, Vol. 77, № 2. Р. 157–169.
  88. Gu X., F.E. Simons, and K.J. Simons. Epinephrine absorption after different routes of administration in an animal model. Biopharm Drug Dispos, 1999. 20 (8), p. 401–405.
  89. Brown S.G., Mullins R.J., Gold M.S., Anaphylaxis: diagnosis and management //Med. J. Aust, 2006. Vol. 185. № 5. Р. 283–289.
  90. Simons F.E. et al. Epinephrine for the out-of-hospital (first-aid) treatment of anaphylaxis in infants: is the ampule/syringe/needle method practical? //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2001. Vol. 108. № 6. Р. 1040–1044.
  91. Simons F. Anaphylaxis: Recent advances in assessment and treatment. //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2009. 124. Р. 625–636.
  92. Smith M. et al. Corticosteroids for hospitalised children with acute asthma. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2003(2). P. CD002886.
  93. Sheikh A., Broek V.M., Brown S.G.A., Simons F.E.R. H1-antihistamines for the Dubois A.E.J., Tuner P.J., Hourihane J., Balmer-Weber B., Beyer K., Chance С., et al. How does the dose affect the severity of food allergic reactions and can it improve the risk assessment of allergenic products?: report of the expert group and the ILSI Europe food Allergy task force workshop //Allergy. 2018. 73. Р. 1383–1392.
  94. Pettersson I., Kopelman G.H. et al. Prediction of the severity of allergic reactions to food //Allergy. 2018. 73. P. 1532-1540.
  95. Mullins R.J. Anaphylaxis: risk factors for recurrence //Clin Exp Allergy. 2003. Vol. 33, № 8. Р.1033–1040.
  96. Topal E., Bakirtas A., Yilmaz O., Ertoy Karagol I.H., Arga M., Demirsoy M.S. et al. Anaphylaxis in infancy compared with older children //Allergy Asthma Proc. 2013 May-Jun. Vol. 34, № 3. Р. 233–238.
  97. Pumphrey R.S. and M.H. Gowland. Further fatal allergic reactions to food in the United Kingdom, 1999–2006 //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2007. Vol. 119, №4. Р. 1018–1019.
  98. Vazquez-Ortiz M., Alvaro M., Piquer M. et al. Life-threatening anaphylaxis to egg and milk oral immunotherapy in asthmatic teenagers //Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014. 113. Р. 482–484.
  99. Valent P. Risk factors and management of severe life-threatening anaphylaxis in patients with clonal mast cell disorders // Clin. Exp. Allergy. 2014. 44. Р. 914–920.
  100. Broesby-Olsen S., Oropeza A.R., Bindslev-Jensen C. et al. Recognizing mastocytosis in patients with anaphylaxis: Value of KIT D816V mutation analysis of peripheral blood // J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2015. 135. Р. 262–264.
  101. Brockow K., Kneissl D., Valentini L. et al. Using a gluten oral food challenge protocol to improve diagnosis of wheat–dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis //J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2015. 135. Р. 977–984.
  102. Ansley L., Bonini M., Delgado L. et al. Pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis: an EAACI position statement // Allergy. 2015. 70. Р. 1212–1221.
  103. Hox V., Desai A., Bandara G. et al. Estrogen increases the severity of anaphylaxis in female mice through enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production // J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2015. 135. Р. 729–736.
  104. Gold M. et al. Intraoperative anaphylaxis: an association with latex sensitivity // J. Allergy Clin Immunol, 1991, 87 (3), p. 662–666.
  105. Смолкин Ю.С., Грищенко Е.А. Современные представления о формировании оральной толерантности (часть 1) //Аллергология и иммунология в педиатрии. 2015. №4 (43). С. 29–35.
  106. Смолкин Ю.С., Грищенко Е.А. Современные представления о формировании оральной толерантности (часть 2) //Аллергология и иммунология в педиатрии. 2016. №1 (44). С. 8–14.
  107. Варламов Е.Е., Пампура А.Н. Значение клинико-лабораторного фенотипа прогнозирования течения аллергии к белкам коровьего молока //Вопросы современной педиатрии. 2013; 12(6): 19–22.
  108. Muraro A., Hoffmann- Sommerguber K., Hotzhauser et al. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidline. Protecting consumers with food allergies: understanding food treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007. 1: CD006160.
  109. Bøgh K.L., Madsen C.B. Food allergens: is there a correlation between digestive resistance and allergenicity? //Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2016. 56. Р. 1545–1567.
  110. consumption, meeting regulations and indentifying unment needs //Allergy. 2014. 69. Р. 1464–1472.
  111. Laguda B., Coren M.E., Lack G. Read the label carefully //Arch. Dis. Child. 2004. 89. Р. 797.

Лепешкова ТС, Бельтюков ЕК, Царькова СА. Пищевая анафилаксия у детей. Аллергология и иммунология в педиатрии. 2020;60(1):26-43. https://DOI 10.24411/2500-1175-2020-10002

Для корреспонденции

Лепешкова Татьяна Сергеевна, к.м.н., врач аллерголог-иммунолог, МАУ «Городская детская поликлиника № 13»
Адрес: 620100, г. Екатеринбург, ул. Ткачей, 16а
E-mail: levlpa@mail.ru

АЛЛЕРГОЛОГИЯ И ИММУНОЛОГИЯ В ПЕДИАТРИИ

Сообщить об опечатке

Текст, который будет отправлен нашим редакторам: