Influence of intestinal microbiota on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in children


Volume 67 • Issue 4 • December 2021, pp. 4-11

Received: 04.08.2021 | Accepted for publication: 05.09.2021 | ​Publication date: 25.12.2021

ORCID logo A. V. Zhestkov, ORCID logo O. O. Pobezhimova

Samara State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russia Federation, 18 Gagarina str., 443079, Samara, Russian

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Research objective
Particular attention is paid to atopic dermatitis (AD) as one of the earliest and most frequent clinical manifestations of allergy in children. AD is a multifactorial disease, the development of which is closely related to genetic defects in the immune response and adverse environmental influences. It was found that the action of these factors determines the rate of development of AD, especially in young children. One of these factors is a violation of the intestinal microbiota, which plays an essential role in the development of the child’s immune system and has a protective effect in the formation of atopy. It has been shown that 80-95% of patients with AD have intestinal dysbiosis, while, along with a deficiency of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, there is an excessive growth of Staphilococcus.
The use of modern molecular genetics technologies made it possible to obtain a fairly complete understanding of the number, genetic heterogeneity and complexity of the bacterial components of the intestinal microbiota, while clinical studies have shown the importance of its interactions with the host organism in the formation of various forms of pathology. It has been established that the human intestinal microbiota is an evolutionary set of microorganisms that exists as a balanced microecological system in which the symbiotic microflora is in dynamic equilibrium, forms microbial associations that occupy a certain ecological niche in it, and is one of the most important factors affecting human health.
The gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, which causes immunosuppression, but the exact mechanism of its action is still unclear. It is widely known that probiotics act on the immune system. These are living microorganisms with immunomodulatory effects that stimulate Th1 cytokines and suppress Th2 responses, which are being investigated for the treatment of several diseases. The most commonly used probiotics are part of the intestinal microflora such as lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and enterococci.
The purpose of this article: to systematize the information available today on the influence of the composition of the intestinal microflora on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.


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Zhestkov AV, Pobezhimova OO. Influence of intestinal microbiota on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in children. Allergology and Immunology in Pediatrics. 2021;4:4–11. (In Russ.)

For correspondence:

Olga O. Pobezhimova

Graduate student of department of the general and clinical microbiology, allergology and immunology Samara State Medical University

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Сonflict of interest:

A. V. Zhestkov is a member of the editorial board

Source of funding:

There is no source of funding